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Subject: Interpolated notes
From: R PRADA <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To:R PRADA <[log in to unmask]>
Date:Sun, 24 Sep 2017 01:44:33 -0400

text/plain (35 lines)

Turns out that in Mozart, fermatas are invitations to add decorations. For a long time some imagined idea of purity made people afraid to add cadenzas and little turns, but an expert such as Boris Goldovsky absolutely expected cadenzas and decorations.

During the time of Mahler there was a trend towards excessive decoration, and Mahler wrote a cannon, known as The Mahler reform, trying to make a unified aesthetic. Later someone or other erased all decoration.
The great Henry Pleasants agreed with Goldovsky and had a recording of Come Scoglio with ornaments and cadenzas arranged by Goldovsky that he played every summer for a course in Salzburg for American singers.
At a certain point there was an effusive use in ornament in Donizetti and Bellini, even Rossini.
Based on this Maestro Ricci wrote a books of cadenzas for every voice type. He was also an expert on Puccini performance style, having worked at the composer's side.
Estelle Liebling also wrote cadenzas. 
Before this everyone has his own cadenzas.
GB Faure has an amusing anecdote about Battistini and his favorite cadenza.

I am about to crash, but I will locate the Faure story as it is quite sweet.

From what I have read the audiences wanted novelty and some of those high notes would have served to inject a note of excitement.

Of course if everyone does the same interpolation, it becomes tradition. That is ho-hum, to some at least.

I'm not sure but I think Rossini may have been the first composer to write out cadenzas. That would have been to keep singers from going totally off the reservation, and distorting the form of arias by carrying on too long.


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